Elemental analysis products

Measure almost any element in almost any matrix

periodic table

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) provides one of the simplest, most accurate and most economic analytical methods for the determination of elemental composition of many types of materials. Indispensable to both R&D and quality assurance (QA) functions, our advanced and unique wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) products are routinely used to analyze products from cement to plastics and from metals to food to semiconductor wafers. Rigaku offerings range from high power, high-performance wavelength dispersive WDXRF systems, for the most demanding applications, to a complete line of benchtop energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and WDXRF systems. For non-destructive ultra-trace elemental analysis, Rigaku offers total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometers as well.

Rigaku also offers a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) handheld product, the Katana. LIBS is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. The laser is focused to form a plasma, which atomizes and excites samples that then emit characteristic spectra for elemental analysis of samples.

Elemental analysis by Wavelength dispersive, Energy dispersive & Total reflection X-ray fluorescence

Supermini   Supermini200
Benchtop tube below sequential WDXRF spectrometer analyzes O through U in solids, liquids and powders
Low-cost EDXRF elemental analyzer measures Na to U in solids, liquids, powders and thin-films
  ZSX Primus IV   ZSX Primus IV
High power, tube above, sequential WDXRF spectrometer with new ZSX Guidance expert system software
High-performance, Cartesian-geometry EDXRF elemental analyzer measures Na to U in solids, liquids, powders and thin-films
  ZSX Primus   ZSX Primus / SSLS
High power, tube below, sequential WDXRF spectrometer with Smart Sample Loading System
Mini-Z Sulfur   Mini-Z Sulfur
ASTM D2622 method WDXRF analyzer for sulfur (S) in petroleum fuels and ULSD
  NEX QC+ QuantEZ NEX QC+ QuantEZ
NEX QC+ with powerful Windows® software and optional FP.
  ZSX Primus II   ZSX Primus II
High power, tube above, sequential WDXRF spectrometer with mapping and superior light element performance
Mini-Z series   Mini-Z Series
Tube below, single element WDXRF analyzer for quality control applications
New 60 kV EDXRF system featuring QuantEZ software and optional standardless analysis.
  ZSX Primus III+   ZSX Primus III+
High power, tube above, sequential WDXRF spectrometer
Micro-Z ULS   Micro-Z ULS
Dedicated ultra-low sulfur analyzer for petroleum fuels
New variable collimator small spot 60 kV EDXRF system featuring QuantEZ software.
  Simultix 15 Simultix 15
High throughput tube below multi-channel simultaneous WDXRF spectrometer analyzes Be through U
The new, next generation benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence
(TXRF) spectrometer
AZX 400   AZX 400
Large sample capability; high power, tube below, sequential WDXRF spectrometer with mapping
  AZX 400   ZSX Primus 400
WDXRF spectrometer designed to handle very large and/or heavy samples

Handheld laser induced breakdown (LIBS) spectrometer

KT-100S   KT-100S
The latest in handheld metal analysis. designed for on-the-spot identification of the most difficult alloy grades.

Theory of X-ray fluorescence

XRF SchematicIn X-ray fluorescence (XRF), an electron can be ejected from its atomic orbital by the absorption of a light wave (photon) of sufficient energy. The energy of the photon (hν) must be greater than the energy with which the electron is bound to the nucleus of the atom. When an inner orbital electron is ejected from an atom (middle image), an electron from a higher energy level orbital will be transferred to the lower energy level orbital. During this transition a photon maybe emitted from the atom (bottom image). This fluorescent light is called the characteristic X-ray of the element. The energy of the emitted photon will be equal to the difference in energies between the two orbitals occupied by the electron making the transition. Because the energy difference between two specific orbital shells, in a given element, is always the same (i.e. characteristic of a particular element), the photon emitted when an electron moves between these two levels, will always have the same energy. Therefore, by determining the energy (wavelength) of the X-ray light (photon) emitted by a particular element, it is possible to determine the identity of that element.

For a particular energy (wavelength) of fluorescent light emitted by an element, the number of photons per unit time (generally referred to as peak intensity or count rate) is related to the amount of that analyte in the sample. The counting rates for all detectable elements within a sample are usually calculated by counting, for a set amount of time, the number of photons that are detected for the various analytes' characteristic X-ray energy lines. It is important to note that these fluorescent lines are actually observed as peaks with a semi-Gaussian distribution because of the imperfect resolution of modern detector technology. Therefore, by determining the energy of the X-ray peaks in a sample's spectrum, and by calculating the count rate of the various elemental peaks, it is possible to qualitatively establish the elemental composition of the samples and to quantitatively measure the concentration of these elements.