Rigaku: Leading with Innovation X-ray Diffraction & Elemental Analysis
The Bridge
Small angle and wide angle
X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) measurement system
The NANOPIX SAXS/WAXS measurement system is applicable to the study of a variety of materials including solids, liquids, liquid-crystals, or gels with ordered and disordered structures, and diverse applications including nanoparticle size distribution analyses, three-dimensional protein molecule structure analyses, identification of molecular assembly or disassembly and research of advanced materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP). For more >
Interested in publishing your work in The Bridge?
Publish Your Work Here
The Bridge now welcomes manuscripts, communications, and papers that describe techniques and applications of all forms of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD, including SAXS) that are of interest to fellow scientists in industry, academia, and government. Manuscripts, in PDF format, are only accepted with the understanding that they are not commercial in nature. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work. If illustrations or other material in a manuscript have been published previously, the author is responsible for obtaining permission to republish. Please send copy to the editor at Rigaku.newsletter@Rigaku.com
Elemental analysis of solids, liquids, powders, alloys and thin films
As the world's only high-power benchtop sequential wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer for elemental analysis of oxygen (O) through uranium (U) of almost any material, the Rigaku Supermini200 uniquely delivers low cost-of-ownership (COO) with high resolution and lower limits-of-detection (LLD). For more >
Video of the Month
Video of the Month
The Fabric of the Cosmos
"The Fabric of the Cosmos," a four-hour television series, produced by PBS/NOVA in 2012 and based on the book by renowned physicist and author Brian Greene, takes us to the frontiers of physics to see how scientists are piecing together the most complete picture yet of space, time, and the universe. With each step, audiences will discover that just beneath the surface of our everyday experience lies a world we would hardly recognize—a startling world far stranger and more wondrous than anyone expected.

Brian Greene is going to let you in on a secret: We've all been deceived. Our perceptions of time and space have led us astray. Much of what we thought we knew about our universe—that the past has already happened and the future is yet to be, that space is just an empty void, that our universe is the only universe that exists—just might be wrong.

Interweaving provocative theories, experiments, and stories with crystal-clear explanations and imaginative metaphors like those that defined the groundbreaking and highly acclaimed series "The Elegant Universe," "The Fabric of the Cosmos" aims to be the most compelling, visual, and comprehensive picture of modern physics ever seen on television. Watch video >
Conferences and Workshops
Rigaku Conferences
Join Rigaku
at future meetings
Rigaku will be sponsoring, attending or exhibiting at the following conferences and trade shows:

Norwegian X-ray Conference
Fevik, Norway
September 5 – 7, 2016

Continuing Challenge HAZMAT
Sacramento, CA
September 6 – 9, 2016

Chiba, Japan
September 7 – 9, 2016

International Soft Matter Conference (ISMC)
Grenoble, France
September 12 – 16, 2016

Labelexpo Americas
Rosemont, Illinois
September 13 – 15, 2016

See the complete list >
Useful link of the Month
Useful Link
Wayback Machine
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet created by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization, based in San Francisco, California, United States. The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet. The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Since 1996, they have been archiving cached pages of web sites onto their large cluster of Linux nodes. For more >
Planning to Submit a Grant?
Rigaku is happy to assist
If you are planning on submitting an instrument grant proposal, Rigaku will be happy to assist you. We can help you determine the correct instrument and configura­tion best suited for your analytical needs. Start the process >
Rigaku's Materials Analysis eNewsletter, The Bridge
Subscribe to The Bridge
Join us
Each month, Rigaku distributes two eNewsletters: The Bridge, which focuses on Materials Analysis, and Crystallography Times, which concentrates on life sciences. Join us >


We want to thank everyone who visited Rigaku at the 65th annual Denver X-ray Conference (DXC) at the Westin O’Hare Hotel, Rosemont, IL during the first week of August. Attended by over 300 scientists from 29 countries, this conference featured 45 exhibitors and the usual plethora of oral sessions, workshops and posters. We wish to congratulate Alan C. Huber, winner of the 2016 Birks Award, as well as Matteo Leoni and Paolo Scardi, winners of the 2016 Hanawalt Award. A link to a report on this year's DXC may be found be below.

DXC 2016
Rigaku booth at Denver X-ray Conference (DXC)

This time of year is the Lotus flower season in Japan. The lotus flower, a symbol of Buddhism, is revered in Japan for its ability to rise from the dirty, murky waters to bloom into a beautiful pure flower. This process symbolizes attaining enlightenment. Please enjoy the photos below:

Lotus flowers
Lotus flowers in full bloom at Sankeien Garden (Yokohama, Japan)

Rigaku will be attending more than 25 scientific events in September, including: Japan Analytical & Scientific Instruments Show (JASIS 2016) at Makuhari Messe, Japan;  International Soft Matter Conference (ISMC 2016) in Grenoble, France; Geological Society of America (GSA 2016) in Denver,CO; and Labelexpo Americas in Rosemont, IL. We promise to have new and interesting things to discuss.

This month we start a new serialized article titled "What is X‐ray fluorescence (XRF) about?" Look for subsiquent chapters in the months ahead. Our featured Rigaku Journal article covers the "Introduction to XRD analysis of modern functional thin films using a 2-dimensional detector – (1) GI-XRD."

The video topic this month continues our "outer space" theme with "The Fabric of the Cosmos," a four-hour television series, produced by PBS/NOVA in 2012 and based on the book by renowned physicist and author Brian Greene.

This month's featured XRD AppNote concerns the "Measurement with fluorescent X-ray reduction mode of D/teX Ultra." Additional applications notes include WDXRF, EDXRF and LIBS technologies. Check out the book review, news and papers sections at the bottom of the page for the latest developments in materials science. And a report on last month's American Crystallography Association (ACA) conference is a bonus article for your enlightenment.

Enjoy the newsletter.

R.C. Tisdale, Ph.D. – Editor

Rigaku Journal cover   Featured XRD Rigaku Journal Article
Introduction to XRD analysis of modern functional thin films using a
2-dimensional detector—(1) GI-XRD

By Shintaro Kobayashi and Katsuhiko Inaba, Rigaku Corporation

The development of new functional thin films and the fabrication of functional devices using these materials are the outgrowth of emerging demands for high efficiency, energy-saving, lightweight devices to further the pursuit of comfort and convenience in daily life. The "Smartphone" is a typical example, where numerous functional thin film based devices are employed, such as, display screens, backlighting, batteries, data storage devices, etc. Characterization of functional thin films is necessary in terms of not only the phase identification of composing materials but also further crystallographic characterization of constituent crystals, such as their textures or orientation relationships with substrates, lattice distortions, film thicknesses etc., since these physical parameters are closely correlated with the devices' performance. For more >
XRF schematic   Featured XRF Article – What is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) about?
By Pol De Pape, XRF Application Scientist, Rigaku Latin America

XRF is a spectroscopic method for elemental analysis of materials, based on the principle of X-Ray fluorescence. It is one of the most commonly used methods for qualitative and quantitative determination of the elemental composition of a sample, because it is an easy and rapid analysis technique. For more >
JASIS   Upcoming Event
Join Rigaku at JASIS2016

JASIS2016 will be held in Makuhari, Tokyo from 7 – 9 September 2016. It is one of the largest exposition in Asia for Analytical and Scientific Instruments. Normally, over 30,000 people attend. Rigaku will show over 20 instruments at JASIS, including six new products for JASIS2016. For more >
ISMC   Upcoming Event
Meet Rigaku at ISMC2016

The 4th International Soft Matter Conference (ISMC2016) will be held in Grenoble, France from 12 – 16 September 2016. Soft matter science is a growing and interdisciplinary field of research, attracting equal attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers. In part, this appeal comes from the astounding properties of "soft materials".

Soft materials are important in a wide range of technological applications. They may appear as structural and packaging materials, foams and adhesives, detergents and cosmetics, paints, food additives, lubricants and fuel additives, rubber in tires, CFRP, fuel cells, wearable computers, flexible devices, etc.
For more >
DXC   The Denver X-ray Conference
Report on DXC 2016
Reported by H. Toraya, Ph.D., Advisor to the President of Rigaku Corporation and Former Professor at Nagoya Institute of Technology

The Denver X-ray Conference (DXC), organized by the International Center for Diffraction Data (ICDD), was held on August 1 – 5 at the Westin O'Hare Hotel, Rosemont, Illinois, USA. Over 300 scientists from 29 countries attended this five-day meeting, at which 45 companies exhibited. They enjoyed scientific activities and conversations with old and new friends while holding a wine glass in one hand during three evening mixers. For more >
DXC   Workshops at Denver X-ray Conference
Report on DXC 2016 Workshops
Reported by Kosuke Kawakyu, XRF Application Scientist, Rigaku Corporation

One of the distinguishing hallmarks of the Denver X-ray Conference is the workshops run by experts from both industry and academia during the first two days. A broad range of topics, such as basic and advanced XRF/XRD analysis, Rietveld, XAFS, imaging, structure solution, amorphous & disordered materials, is covered by almost 40 instructors. With a total of 24 sessions held this year, beginners to experienced professionals could be sure to discover new and interesting subjects. For more >
ACA   American Crystallographic Association
Report on ACA 2016
Reported by Angela Criswell, VP of Life Science X-ray Products, Rigaku Oxford Diffraction

The 66th Annual Meeting of the American Crystallographic Association (ACA) was held in Denver, Colorado from Friday, July 22nd – Tuesday, July 26th. There were a total of 560 attendees at the meeting and 36 exhibitors. For more >
XRD App Note   XRD Application Note
Measurement with fluorescent X-ray reduction mode of D/teX Ultra
Rigaku Corporation

Powder X-ray diffractometers are used in many fields of industry and research, for substances ranging from inorganic materials such as ceramics and minerals, to pharmaceuticals and other organic materials. The MiniFlex Series is a line of benchtop instruments – with 1/20 the volume, and 1/10 the weight, of stand-alone powder X-ray diffractometers – that can operate with power from an AC 100 V outlet. The current models in the MiniFlex Series include a high-power model type with a maximum rated output of 600 W (MiniFlex600), and a reduced-utility model, which requires no water facilities and only generates 300 W of output power (MiniFlex300). For more >
WDXRF App Note   WDXRF Application Note
Quantitative Analysis of Stainless Steel using the ZSX PrimusIII+
Rigaku Corporation

Alloy steel with chromium as the alloying element added is called stainless steel. Its advantage is not to rust or corrode as easily as ordinary steel. There are over 150 grades of stainless steel, which have many applications such as cookware and major appliances. Alloy steels are generally produced using electric furnaces. The concentrations of elements in molten steel are controlled in the process of steel making, therefore rapid and accurate analysis of elemental compositions are required. As part of the control of the steel making process, analyses of slag and raw materials such as quicklime and ferroalloys are also required. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are the most common analysis tools to analyze steel owing to rapid analysis and the ability to measure both bulk metal and powders. For more >
EDXRF App Note   EDXRF Application Note
Silicone Coating on Paper and Plastic
Applied Rigaku Technologies

Paper and plastic are coated with a thin layer of silicone as a release coating in the manufacture of labels, tape or other adhesives, or as a barrier coating for protection against air in the packaging of food, medical products and other materials. When coating is too heavy silicone material is needlessly wasted, while too little coating may not meet the product spec. In order to achieve reliable QA/QC, Rigaku offers the NEX QC+ EDXRF analyzer. Simple to operate, the NEX QC+ gives the QC technician an ideal tool for quickly checking silicone coat weight in order to maintain the highest product quality with minimal costs.
For more >
LIBS App Note   LIBS Application Note
Accurate Identification of Light Elements
in Copper Alloys Using Handheld Libs

Rigaku Analytical Devices

Copper (Cu) is one of the most commonly used metals in various applications dating back thousands of years. Pure copper is most commonly used in electrical applications because of its superior conductivity, ductile form, and corrosion resistance. In addition, there are over 400 different Cu alloys – including brasses, bronzes, and cupronickel – used in construction, plumbing, and transportation. Because copper-based alloys are so common and are made up of various light elements, it is difficult for recyclers to accurately verify grades using old methods. For more >
Book Review   Scientific Book Reviews
Unlocking the Clubhouse: Women in Computing and Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, From Missiles to the Moon to Mars

This month's theme is women in science. I came across Unlocking the Clubhouse listening to Fresh Air and Rise of the Rocket Girls listening to Science Friday, both on NPR. I highly recommend fathers of young girls read both books as they give insight into overcoming the "but you're a girl" mentality of many people.
For more >
Bragg's Law   Material Analysis in the News
News for August 2016

August 1, 2016. Japan's National Institute for Materials Science has developed a flexible, organic/metal hybrid polymer display that you can cut without wrecking it. The technology only needs a few seconds of power to adjust to its new shape, and it even maintains its last information when you switch it off, a lot like e-paper.

August 3, 2016. A novel, low cost and green lithiated tin vanadium oxide compound has been synthesized via simple, economical and scalable sol-gel method to replace the conventional graphite as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. This material has a long technological lifespan as it can last as long as it is well-kept under moisture free condition.

August 5, 2016. The Ostwald ripening process can be used to make large-grain, high-quality perovskite thin films from lower-quality, hole-ridden ones. So say researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) in China and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Colorado in the US who have used their films to make high-performance solar cells with nearly 20% power-conversion efficiency.

August 5, 2016. Peter Zalden and Michael Shu, from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in California, and colleagues fired a train of picosecond light pulses in the terahertz frequency range at a common chalcogenide. Following the pulse exposure, crystalline filaments appeared in the sample, as confirmed with X-ray diffraction. The presence of crystallization implies that threshold switching takes less than a picosecond to occur, which could prove important for the development of phase-change memory.

August 5, 2016. One of the hottest new materials is a class of porous solids known as metal-organic frameworks, or MOFs. These man-made materials were introduced in the 1990s. Now, a surprising discovery by scientists in Canada and Russia reveals that MOFs also exist in nature – albeit in the form of rare minerals found so far only in Siberian coal mines.

August 10, 2016. X-ray diffraction tomography (XRDT) provides an attractive solution for identifying the material composition of a complex, optically thick object – throughout its volume. However, it requires that the location and deflection angle of the measured X-ray scatter must be determined concurrently. To overcome this difficulty, Dr. Joel Greenberg at Duke University developed a new, flexible approach to performing home lab XRDT with off-the-shelf components. Rather than filtering the scatter, he place a coded aperture between the object and the detectors and intentionally modulated the scatter.

August 15, 2016. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists have combined X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy measurements together with first-principle calculations to examine the high-pressure structural behavior of magnesium chloride. The team observed an extensive stability of MgCl2 under pressure that contradicts the well-established structural systematics.

August 17, 2016. Kyoto Institute of Technology, together with a Japanese corporate partner and a representative Japanese lacquerware artist, Dr. Yutaro Shimode, announced today the development of a bioplastic using cellulose resin from grasses, trees and other non-edible plant resources that features the highly regarded "Urushi black" color of Japanese traditional lacquerware.

August 22, 2016. A careful balance of the ingredients in carbon-capture materials would maximize the sequestration of greenhouse gases while simplifying the processing – or "sweetening" – of natural gas. The lab of Rice University chemist Andrew Barron led a project to map how changes in porous carbon materials and the conditions in which they're synthesized affect carbon capture.

August 22, 2016. When you watched the crisp feeds of the Rio 2016 Olympics on your flat-panel LCD display screen, you may not know that this is partly the contribution of pioneering materials scientist Hideo Hosono. Based at the Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan, Professor Hosono is best known for his discovery of iron-based superconductors and for pioneering the development of a type of semiconductor called transparent oxide semiconductors (TAOS).

August 22, 2016. Researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, led by Delia Milliron – an associate professor in the McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, have invented a new flexible smart window material that, when incorporated into windows, sunroofs, or even curved glass surfaces, will have the ability to control both heat and light from the sun.

August 23, 2016. A new material that could be used as a superconductor and for hydrogen-fuel cell storage has been created by US scientists. The research details how scientists have managed to force hydrogen into a metallic state. Scientists are interested in creating metallic hydrogen as it will allow super-conductors to be used at higher temperatures – currently they only work at temperatures lower than -210°C.

August 24, 2016. An international team of astronomers including Carnegie's Paul Butler has found clear evidence of a planet orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest star to our Solar System. The new world, designated Proxima b, orbits its cool red parent star every 11 days and has a temperature suitable for liquid water to exist on its surface, if it were present. This rocky world is a little more massive than the Earth and is the closest exoplanet to us; it may even be the closest possible abode for life beyond our own Sun.

August 24, 2016. A research group led by Naoki Fukata, a leader of Nanostructured Semiconducting Materials Group at the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan, and a research group at the Georgia Institute of Technology, US, jointly developed an anode material for lithium (Li)-ion rechargeable batteries by forming nanoparticles made of silicon (Si)-metal composites on metal substrates.

periodic table background w/ test tubes   Recent Scientific Papers of Interest
Papers for August 2016

Recent Scientific Papers of Interest is a monthly compilation of material analysis papers appearing in recently released journals and publications. See below

Quantitative XRD Analysis of Binary Blends of Siliceous Fly Ash and Hydrated Cement. Bhagath Singh, G. V. P.; Subramaniam, Kolluru V. L. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. Aug2016, Vol. 28 Issue 8, p1-7. 7p. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001554.

Study on the property of the production for Fengdongyan kiln in Early Ming dynasty by INAA and EDXRF. Li, L.; Huang, Y.; Sun, H.Y.; Yan, L.T.; Feng, S.L.; Xu, Q.; Feng, X.Q. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B. Aug2016, Vol. 381, p52-57. 6p. DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2016.05.027.

Determination of the thorium potential in Shah-Kooh area in Iran by NAA and comparison with the results of ICP and XRF techniques. Tousi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; Firoozabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shiva, Mohammad. Measurement (02632241). Aug2016, Vol. 90, p20-24. 5p. DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2016.04.020.

Qualitative and quantitative characterization of a coal power plant waste by TG/DSC/MS, XRF and XRD. Fernández, Josefa; González, Fernando; Pesquera, Carmen; Neves Junior, Alex; Viana, Marcelo; Dweck, Jo. Journal of Thermal Analysis & Calorimetry. Aug2016, Vol. 125 Issue 2, p703-710. 8p. DOI: 10.1007/s10973-016-5270-8.

Identifying a descriptor for d-orbital delocalization in cathodes of Li batteries based on x-ray Compton scattering. Barbiellini, B.; Suzuki, K.; Orikasa, Y.; Kaprzyk, S.; Itou, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Yung Jui Wang; Hafiz, H.; Yamada, R.; Uchimoto, Y.; Bansil, A.; Sakurai, Y.; Sakurai, H. Applied Physics Letters. 8/15/2016, Vol. 109 Issue 7, p1-5. 5p. 1 Chart, 2 Graphs. DOI: 10.1063/1.4961055.

Evaluation of Grain Size by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering for a Block Copolymer Film in Which Cylindrical Microdomains Are Perpendicularly Oriented. Ohnogi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Sono; Sakurai, Shinichi. Macromolecular Symposia. Aug2016, Vol. 366 Issue 1, p35-41. 7p. DOI: 10.1002/masy.201650044.

Solution X-ray Scattering Form-Factors with Arbitrary Electron Density Profiles and Polydispersity Distributions. Ben-Nun, Tal; Asor, Roi; Ginsburg, Avi; Raviv, Uri. Israel Journal of Chemistry. Aug2016, Vol. 56 Issue 8, p622-628. 7p. DOI: 10.1002/ijch.201500037.

An insight into real and average structure from diffuse X-ray scattering – a case study. Chodkiewicz, Michal Leszek; Makal, Anna; Gajda, Roman; Vidovic, Dragoslav; Wozniak, Krzysztof. Acta Crystallographica: Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering & Materials. Aug2016, Vol. 72 Issue 4, p571-583. 12p. DOI: 10.1107/S2052520616005552.

Study of gradient copolymers auto-association in supercritical CO2 thanks to synchrotron and in-house small-angle X-rays scattering measurements. Gasc, F.; Corso, B.; Causse, J.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. Aug2016, Vol. 114, p26-31. 6p. DOI: 10.1016/j.supflu.2016.04.002.

Simultaneous size and density determination of polymeric colloids by continuous contrast variation in small angle X-ray scattering. Garcia-Diez, Raul; Sikora, Aneta; Gollwitzer, Christian; Minelli, Caterina; Krumrey, Michael. European Polymer Journal. Aug2016, Vol. 81, p641-649. 9p. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2016.01.012.

Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties on an ARB processed IF steel studied by X-ray diffraction and EBSD. Cruz-Gandarilla, Francisco; Salcedo-Garrido, Ana María; Bolmaro, Raúl E.; Baudin, Thierry; De Vincentis, Natalia S.; Avalos, Martina; Cabañas-Moreno, José G.; Mendoza-Leon, Héctor. Materials Characterization. Aug2016, Vol. 118, p332-339. 8p. DOI: 10.1016/j.matchar.2016.05.025.

Characterization of Residual Stresses on Steel Coil Springs via X-Ray Diffraction Techniques. Cuccia, Frank Anthony; Pineault, James; Belassel, Mohammed; Brauss, Michael. SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing. Aug2016, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p649-652. 4p. DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-0420.

Determination of liquid's molecular interference function based on X-ray diffraction and dual-energy CT in security screening. Zhang, Li; YangDai, Tianyi. Applied Radiation & Isotopes. Aug2016, Vol. 114, p179-187. 9p. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2016.05.019.

Crystal structure and tautomerism of Pigment Yellow 138 determined by X-ray powder diffraction and solid-state NMR. Gumbert, Silke D.; Körbitzer, Meike; Alig, Edith; Schmidt, Martin U.; Chierotti, Michele R.; Gobetto, Roberto; Li, Xiaozhou; van de Streek, Jacco. Dyes & Pigments. Aug2016, Vol. 131, p364-372. 9p. DOI: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2016.03.035.

Crystal structure of anhydrous tripotassium citrate from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data and DFT comparison. Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A. Acta Crystallographica: Section E. Aug2016, Vol. 72 Issue 8, p1159-1162. 9p. DOI: 10.1107/S2056989016011506.

Bragg-Laue X-ray dynamical diffraction on perfect and deformed lateral crystalline structures. Punegov, Vasily I.; Kolosov, Sergey I.; Pavlov, Konstantin M. Journal of Applied Crystallography. Aug2016, Vol. 49 Issue 4, p1190-1202. 12p. DOI: 10.1107/S1600576716008396.

Equation of state for technetium from X-ray diffraction and first-principle calculations. Mast, Daniel S.; Kim, Eunja; Siska, Emily M.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Lavina, Barbara; Forster, Paul M. Journal of Physics & Chemistry of Solids. Aug2016, Vol. 95, p6-11. 6p. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2016.03.007.

Analysis of X-ray diffraction curves of trapezoidal Si nanowires with a strain distribution. Takeuchi, Teruaki; Tatsumura, Kosuke; Shimura, Takayoshi; Ohdomari, Iwao. Thin Solid Films. Aug2016, Vol. 612, p116-121. 6p. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2016.05.047.

XRD Raman analysis and optical properties of CuS nanostructured film. Hurma, T.; Kose, S. Optik - International Journal for Light & Electron Optics. Aug2016, Vol. 127 Issue 15, p6000-6006. 7p. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2016.04.019.

Measurements of Residual Stresses in Aluminum Wheels Using the Techniques of XRD, Strain Gages and FEA Simulation – A Comparison. Cione, Francisco C.; Souza, Armando; Martinez, Luiz; Rossi, Jesualdo; Betini, Evandro Giuseppe; Rola, Fabio; Colosio, Marco A. SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing. Aug2016, Vol. 9 Issue 3, p685-687. 3p. DOI: 10.4271/2016-01-0426.

Perspective on the use of nanoparticles to improve LIBS analytical performance: nanoparticle enhanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (NELIBS). De Giacomo, A.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Gaudiuso, R.; Koral, C.; Valenza, G. JAAS (Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry). Aug2016, Vol. 31 Issue 8, p1566-1573. 8p. DOI: 10.1039/c6ja00189k.

Rapid quantitative determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks and soils employing fused glass discs using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Krishna, A. Keshav; Khanna, Tarun C.; Mohan, K. Rama. Spectrochimica Acta Part B. Aug2016, Vol. 122, p165-171. 7p. DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2016.07.004.

Investigation of the effects of anisotropic pores on material properties of insulating concrete using computed tomography and probabilistic methods. Chung, Sang-Yeop; Elrahman, Mohamed Abd; Stephan, Dietmar. Energy & Buildings. Aug2016, Vol. 125, p122-129. 8p. DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.05.006.

Investigation of characteristics and responses of insulating cement paste specimens with Aer solids using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Chung, Sang-Yeop; Elrahman, Mohamed Abd; Stephan, Dietmar; Kamm, Paul H. Construction & Building Materials. Aug2016, Vol. 118, p204-215. 12p. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.159.

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