Rigaku: Leading with Innovation X-ray Diffraction & Elemental Analysis
The Bridge Issue 52
Benchtop chemical crystallography system for 3D small molecule structure determination
XtaLAB mini II
XtaLAB mini II
The Rigaku XtaLAB mini II benchtop X-ray crystallography system is a compact single crystal X-ray diffractometer designed to produce publication-quality 3D structures. The perfect addition to any synthetic chemistry laboratory, the XtaLAB mini II will enhance research productivity by offering affordable structure analysis capability without the necessity of relying on a departmental facility. With the XtaLAB mini II, you no longer have to wait in line to determine your structures. Instead your research group can rapidly analyze new compounds as they are synthesized in the lab.
For more >
Interested in publishing your work in The Bridge?
Publish Your Work Here
The Bridge now welcomes manuscripts, communications, and papers that describe techniques and applications of all forms of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD, including SAXS) that are of interest to fellow scientists in industry, academia, and government. Manuscripts, in PDF format, are only accepted with the understanding that they are not commercial in nature. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work. If illustrations or other material in a manuscript have been published previously, the author is responsible for obtaining permission to republish. Please send copy to the editor at Rigaku.newsletter@Rigaku.com
High-throughput, high-precision elemental analysis from light to heavy elements
Simultix 15
Simultix 15
For over 40 years, the Rigaku Simultix simultaneous wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer system has been widely used as an elemental analytical tool for process control in industries that require high throughput and precision, such as steel and cement. Nearly 1,000 Simultix XRF instruments have been delivered to customers around the world. Along with technological progress over these years, customer requirements have advanced and diversified as well. Simultix 15 WDXRF elemental analyzer was developed to meet these changing needs.
For more >
Video of the Month
Video of the Month
Gravitational waves just helped scientists fill in a gap in the periodic table
Astronomers unlocked one of the universe's best-kept secrets. Since the '50s, scientists have wondered: Where do most of the elements in the periodic table come from? We know that elements like carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are forged in the hot, dense cores of massive stars. But even stars aren't powerful enough to create heavy elements like silver, gold, and cesium. Turns out, the origin of ⅔ of the periodic table is unconfirmed. Now, a single event has given scientists a vital clue.
Watch video >
Conferences and Workshops
Rigaku Conferences
Join Rigaku
at future meetings
Rigaku will be sponsoring, attending or exhibiting at the following conferences and trade shows:

Ohio Hazardous Materials Teams Conference
Solon, OH, USA
November 3 – 4, 2017

CBRNe Convergence 2017
Indianapolis, IN, USA
November 6 – 8, 2017

Eastern Analytical Symposium and Exhibition (EAS 2017)
Princeton, NJ, USA
November 13 – 15, 2017

Materials Research Society (MRS 2017) Fall Meeting & Exhibit
Boston, MA, USA
November 26 – December 1, 2017

See the complete list >
Useful Link of the Month
Useful Link
Graph – Plotting of mathematical functions
Graph is an open source application used to draw mathematical graphs in a coordinate system. Anyone who wants to draw graphs of functions will find this program useful. The program makes it very easy to visualize a function and paste it into another program. It is also possible to do some mathematical calculations on the functions.

For more >
Planning to submit a grant?
Rigaku is happy to assist
If you are planning on submitting an instrument grant proposal, Rigaku will be happy to assist you. We can help you determine the correct instrument and configura­tion best suited for your analytical needs. Start the process >
Rigaku's Materials Analysis eNewsletter, The Bridge
Subscribe to The Bridge
Join us
Each month, Rigaku distributes two eNewsletters: The Bridge, which focuses on Materials Analysis, and Crystallography Times, which concentrates on X-ray crystallography. Join us >


Thanks again to everyone who came by our booths at Material Science & Technology (MS&T 2017) and Geological Society of America (GSA 2017) this month. It was great to see everyone and to have the chance to talk about our new and exciting products. In November, we invite members of the scientific, security and industrial communities to come see us at a variety of events listed below. Of particular note, we will be attending MRS in Boston, EAS in Princeton, NJ and AAPS in San Diego.

XNPIG2017 in Zurich
Rigaku was the platinum sponsor for XNPIG2017 in Zürich, Switzerland

This month's issue contains a Rigaku Journal article describing how to measure trace amounts of sample by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In addition, a special report is included on the recently concluded 17th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2017).

Application papers are also included for TXRF, EDXRF, WDXRF, and XRD. Five short book reviews are included this month concerning a variety of interesting topics. This month's video covers the recently observed collision of two neutron stars and the formation of heavy elements. Check out the news and papers sections at the bottom of the page for the latest developments in materials science.

R.C. Tisdale, Ph.D. – Editor

Rigaku Journal cover   Featured Rigaku Journal Article
How to measure trace amounts of sample by X-ray fluorescence analysis
By Satoshi Ikeda, SBU-WDX, X-ray Instrument Division, Rigaku Corporation

Quality control analysis, which requires high precision, normally requires large samples as much as 20 – 30 mm in diameter. However, in many cases it is dificult to prepare samples large enough or in suffcient quantity for R&D or troubleshooting. Because these samples are precious, there is a strong requirement to recover them after XRF analysis for other analysis methods. This paper introduces sample preparation methods useful for trace sample (small pieces, small amounts of powder, etc.) analysis. Full article >
ICSCRM 2017   Featured Event
17th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials
Reported by Daisaburo Hirai, Semiconductor International Sales Department, Semiconductor Metrology Division, Rigaku Corporation

Rigaku exhibited at the 17th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2017) from September 17th to 22nd in Washington, D.C., U.S.A. ICSCRM started in 1987, with the annual conference rotating among locations in Asia, Europe and the U.S. This year, the conference saw more than 600 attendees from academia and companies who engage in wide-bandgap semiconductor research. Full report >
structure   XRD Application Note
Appropriate Restraint Settings for Crystal Structure Refinement
By Akito Sasaki and Hisashi Konaka, XRD Application & Software Development Dept., X-ray Instrument Division, Rigaku Corporation

Normally, the first choice for crystal structure analysis is the single crystal method. But, sometimes good single crystals cannot be prepared in terms of size and quality, or single crystal state cannot be maintained due to phase transitions, etc. The single crystal method cannot be applied in those cases, and you have to try structure analysis from powder diffraction data to obtain crystal structure information. For more >
structure   XRD Application Note
Measurement of Bulk Samples – Brake pad of a motorcycle
Rigaku Corporation

Bulk samples such as metal blocks, ceramic sintered bodies, or pharmaceutical tablets are aggregates of microcrystals that can be measured by X-ray powder diffraction. With Rigaku's bulk sample holder, thick bulk samples can be easily placed in the diffractometer without any need to cut or pulverize, making it possible to identify crystal phases of bulk surfaces in a non-destructive manner.
For more >
Supermini200   WDXRF Application Note
Accurate Determination for Elements in Laterite Ores by Pressed Powder Method
Rigaku Corporation

In modern resource industries, demand for accurate and quick determination of elements in ores is increasing in order to efficiently operate mining and processing. Wet chemical analysis, which is the traditional analytical technique for elemental determination, requires time and expertise for sample preparation and is therefore not suited for the rapid analysis of large number of samples. X-ray fluorescent spectrometry (XRF) with pressed powder method can overcome these problems.
For more >
NANOHUNTER II   TXRF Application Note
Benchtop TXRF spectrometer NANOHUNTER II
Qualitative analysis of residual abrasive on glass surface

Rigaku Corporation

Various materials are used in the process of polishing glass to remove fine scratches on glass surface or improve smoothness. Hematite particles were used formerly and recently using Bastnasite particles has become mainstream. The new materials are also being studied instead of expensive R.E.. For more >
brake pads   EDXRF Application Note
Brake Pads & Raw Material Mixtures
Applied Rigaku Technologies

Brake pads are composed of various binders, abrasives, materials for structure and performance, and fillers. Raw materials include many materials including organics, resins, glass, metal chips and metallic compounds, minerals, petroleum coke and ceramics. Raw materials are mixed together in various proportions to obtain desired product specifications and performance and monitoring elemental composition along the mixing and production processes is vital for ensuring optimum product quality and specifications. To meet this industry need, Applied Rigaku Technologies offers NEX CG. For more >
AXT logo   XRD and XRF Application Note
Correlative XRD and XRF Analysis of an Alumina Wear Tile
AXT, A Rigaku Distributor

There are many applications where wear is a major problem such as in mineral processing, mining, coal and materials handling. In many of these applications hard metals and alloys including tool steels and tungsten carbides have been traditionally used but are not up to the task. As more advanced materials have come to the fore, engineering ceramics such as alumina have demonstrated their ability to extend the life of wear surfaces, improve component life, reduce downtime and increase productivity. For more >
books   Book Reviews
Al Franken, Giant of the Senate; This Fight Is Our Fight: The Battle to Save America's Middle Class; The Colder War: How the Global Energy Trade Slipped from America's Grasp; Devil's Bargain, Steve Bannon, Donald Trump and the Storming of the Presidency; What Happened
Reviews by Joseph Ferrara, Deputy Director, X-ray Research Laboratory, Rigaku

I have been focused on a number of recent titles that analyze current events so I am a bit behind on my reviews of science-oriented books. Here is what I've read the last few months. For more >
Bragg's Law   Material Analysis in the News
News for October 2017

October 1, 2017. Aluminum remains one of material science's most prized and frequently used substances. A team comprised of researchers from the U.S. and Russia restructured the household metal at the molecular level. The result was a new ultra-light crystalline form of aluminum that is lighter than water.

October 2, 2017. Researchers at Tokyo Tech have reported superconductivity in two kinds of higher titanium oxides prepared in the form of ultrathin films. With a thickness of around 120 nanometers, these materials reveal properties that are only just beginning to be explored. To verify the crystalline structures of the films, the team collaborated with researchers at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) who used X-ray diffraction (XRD) at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

October 5, 2017. Researchers at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) in Japan are the first to add plasmonic metamaterials to spintronic devices to enhance spin-current generation from the heat produced in the mid-infrared regime. The team in Japan showed that a spin current can be generated directly from the absorbed photons in the Pt film, a paramagnetic metal, that is placed over YIG, which is a magnetic insulator.

October 5, 2017. A team led by Cory Dean, assistant professor of physics at Columbia University, and James Hone, Wang Fong-Jen Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Columbia Engineering, has definitively observed an intensely studied anomaly in condensed matter physics – the even-denominator fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state – via transport measurement in bilayer graphene.

October 5, 2017. 3M, the global innovation company long recognized for diversified technology and collaboration, announced the opening of a new 3M Design Center in Japan, a hub to accelerate the growth of design across the global enterprise.

October 9, 2017. Japanese scientists grow drugs in chicken eggs. Researchers at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Kansai region kicked off the process by introducing genes that produce interferon beta into hen eggs.

October 11, 2017. Someone is going to commercialize a general purpose, universal quantum computer, and Intel wants to be the first. So does Google. So does IBM. And D-Wave is pretty sure it already has done this, even if many academics and a slew of upstart competitors don't agree. What we can all agree on is that there is a very long road ahead.

October 11, 2017. Substituting atoms in the process of making two-dimensional alloys not only allows them to be customized for applications but also can make them magnetic. Researchers at Rice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Southern California (USC) and Kumamoto University in Japan used chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to make atom-thick sheets and, in the same step, tailor their properties by adding other elements through a process known as doping.

October 11, 2017. Researchers based at Kyushu University have developed a single catalyst capable of acting as both a fuel cell that consumes hydrogen to release energy and a photosynthetic system able to make oxygen using solar energy. The researchers used X-ray diffraction to provide new insights into the structure and behavior of the catalyst.

October 16, 2017. For the first time, scientists have directly detected gravitational waves – ripples in space-time – in addition to light from the spectacular collision of two neutron stars. This marks the first time that a cosmic event has been observed in both gravitational waves and light.

October 19, 2017. Japan's space agency uncovers a 30 mile-long cavern on the moon that could house astronauts and protect them from deadly radiation. Radar data taken from Japan's Selene spacecraft revealed the huge structure. Scans revealed it is 31 miles (50 km) long and 330 feet (100 metre) wide.

periodic table and test tubes   Recent Scientific Papers of Interest
Papers for October 2017

Recent Scientific Papers of Interest is a monthly compilation of material analysis papers appearing in recently released journals and publications. See below

BioXTAS RAW: improvements to a free open-source program for small-angle X-ray scattering data reduction and analysis. Hopkins, Jesse Bennett; Gillilan, Richard E.; Skou, Soren. Journal of Applied Crystallography. Oct2017, Vol. 50 Issue 5, p1545-1553. 8p. DOI: 10.1107/S1600576717011438.

X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics. Poulsen, H. F.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Simons, H.; Ahl, S. R.; Cook, P. K.; Detlefs, C. Journal of Applied Crystallography. Oct2017, Vol. 50 Issue 5, p1441-1456. 15p. DOI: 10.1107/S1600576717011037.

Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of liquid water-glycerol mixtures. Yukio Kajihara; Nanako Shibata; Masanori Inui; Kazuhiro Matsuda; Satoshi Tsutsui. EPJ Web of Conferences. 2017, Vol. 151, p1-8. 8p. DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/201715106003.

Correlating pore size and shape to local disorder in microporous carbon: A combined small angle neutron and X-ray scattering study. Jafta, Charl J.; Petzold, Albrecht; Risse, Sebastian; Clemens, Daniel; Wallacher, Dirk; Goerigk, Günter; Ballauff, Matthias. Carbon. Oct2017, Vol. 123, p440-447. 8p. DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2017.07.046.

Self-assembly of a bio-based extractant in methyl esters: combination of small angle X-ray scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Gomes Rodrigues, Donatien; Fadel, Ophélie; Bauduin, Pierre; Girard, Luc; Guilbaud, Philippe; L'Hermitte, Annabelle; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Diat, Olivier. Green Chemistry. 10/7/2017, Vol. 19 Issue 19, p4680-4689. 10p. DOI: 10.1039/c7gc01769c.

Integrated Three-Dimensional Microanalysis Combining X-Ray Microtomography and X-Ray Fluorescence Methodologies. Laforce, Brecht; Masschaele, Bert; Boone, Matthieu N.; Schaubroeck, David; Dierick, Manuel; Vekemans, Bart; Walgraeve, Christophe; Janssen, Colin; Cnudde, Veerle; Hoorebeke, Luc Van; Vincze, Laszlo. Analytical Chemistry. 10/3/2017, Vol. 89 Issue 19, p10617-10624. 8p. DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b03205.

Estimate of carbon fiber's fracture toughness based on the small angle X-ray diffraction. Wang, Meiling; Bian, Wenfeng; Jiang, Zhaochun. Polymer Bulletin. Oct2017, Vol. 74 Issue 10, p4143-4151. 9p. DOI: 10.1007/s00289-017-1941-2.

Selective Micellar Extraction of Ultratrace Levels of Uranium in Aqueous Samples by Task Specific Ionic Liquid Followed by Its Detection Employing Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Saha, Abhijit; Sanyal, Kaushik; Rawat, Neetika; Deb, Sadhan Bijoy; Saxena, Manoj Kumar; Tomar, Bhupendra Singh. Analytical Chemistry. 10/3/2017, Vol. 89 Issue 19, p10422-10430. 9p. DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02427.

An indexing algorithm independent of peak position extraction for X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Coelho, Alan A. Journal of Applied Crystallography. Oct2017, Vol. 50 Issue 5, p1323-1330. 7p. DOI: 10.1107/S1600576717011359.

High pressure x-ray diffraction studies of the nanostructured Ge34Sb66 solid solution produced by mechanical alloying. Rebelo, Querem Hapuque Felix; de Souza, Sérgio Michielon; Trichês, Daniela Menegon; de Figueiredo Pereira, Aercio Filipe Franklim; de Lima, João Cardoso. Journal of Alloys & Compounds. Oct2017, Vol. 722, p131-137. 7p. DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.06.090.

Protonation of Ferrocene: A Low-Temperature X-ray Diffraction Study of [Cp2FeH](PF6) Reveals an Iron-Bound Hydrido Ligand. Malischewski, Moritz; Seppelt, Konrad; Sutter, Jörg; Heinemann, Frank W.; Dittrich, Birger; Meyer, Karsten. Angewandte Chemie. 10/16/2017, Vol. 129 Issue 43, p13557-13561. 5p. DOI: 10.1002/ange.201704854.

Bimorph Actuator: a New Instrument for Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction and Spectroscopy. Blagov, A.E.; Kulikov, A.G.; Marchenkov, N.V.; Pisarevsky, Y.V.; Kovalchuk, M.V. Experimental Techniques. Oct2017, Vol. 41 Issue 5, p517-523. 7p. DOI: 10.1007/s40799-017-0194-1.

Microstructure of dental cements from small-angle scattering and X-ray tomography. Viani, A.; Sotiriadis, K.; Kumpová, I. Dental Materials. 2017 Supplement, Vol. 33, pe81-e81. 1p. DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2017.08.164.

The use of anomalous x-ray diffraction as a tool for the analysis of compound semiconductors. Daniel M Többens; Susan Schorr. Semiconductor Science & Technology. Oct2017, Vol. 32 Issue 10, p1-1. 1p. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6641/aa8708.

Identifying eighteenth century pigments at the Bodleian library using in situ Raman spectroscopy, XRF and hyperspectral imaging. Mulholland, R.; Howell, D.; Beeby, A.; Nicholson, C.; Domoney, K. Heritage Science. 10/18/2017, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p1-19. 19p. DOI: 10.1186/s40494-017-0157-y.

Characterization of the porous structure of a non-woven fibrous medium for air filtration at local and global scales using porosimetry and X-ray micro-tomography. Théron, Félicie; Lys, Elisabeth; Joubert, Aurélie; Bertrand, François; Le Coq, Laurence. Powder Technology. Oct2017, Vol. 320, p295-303. 9p. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2017.07.020.

Compression-recovery model of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator guided by X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis. Kameswara Rao, P.V.; Rawal, Amit; Kumar, Vijay; Rajput, Krishn Gopal. Journal of Power Sources. Oct2017, Vol. 365, p389-398. 10p. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.08.055.

A capillary specimen aberration for describing X-ray powder diffraction line profiles for convergent, divergent and parallel beam geometries. Coelho, Alan A.; Rowles, Matthew R. Journal of Applied Crystallography. Oct2017, Vol. 50 Issue 5, p1331-1340. 9p. DOI: 10.1107/S160057671701130X.

Nanoparticle size distribution quantification: results of a small-angle X-ray scattering inter-laboratory comparison. Pauw, Brian R.; Kästner, Claudia; Thünemann, Andreas F. Journal of Applied Crystallography. Oct2017, Vol. 50 Issue 5, p1280-1288. 8p. DOI: 10.1107/S160057671701010X.

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